الثلاثاء, 24 نيسان/أبريل 2018 14:14

البنك الدولي :اليمن تسلمت حوالي 3 مليارات و351 مليون دولار كتحويلات من المغتربين إلى داخل البلاد مميز

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أعلن البنك الدولي أمس الاثنين أن التحويلات المالية التي تعد مصدرا مهما للإيرادات في البلدان الفقيرة بلغت مستوى قياسيا عام 2017 بعد عامين من التراجع.

وقال البنك الدولي إن اليمن تسلمت حوالي 3 مليار و351 مليون دولار كتحويلات من المغتربين إلى داخل البلاد. وجاءت تحويلات المغتربين في السعودية في المرتبة الأولى بإجمالي 2 مليار و62 مليون دولار، تلتها هذه الدول:

الإمارات 590 مليون دولار، قطر 165 مليون دولار، الكويت 158 مليون دولار، الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية 132 مليون دولار، إسرائيل 68 مليون دولار، البحرين 41 مليون دولار، بريطانيا 38 مليون دولار، ليبيا 34 مليون دولار، مصر 13 مليون دولار، الجزائر 7 ملايين دولار، ألمانيا 7 ملايين دولار، كندا 4 ملايين دولار، الصين 3 ملايين دولار، السويد 3 ملايين دولار، الأردن 3 ملايين دولار، العراق 3 ملايين دولار، كينيا مليونا دولار، ماليزيا مليونا دولار، الضفة الغربية وقطاع غزة مليونا دولار، أستراليا مليونا دولار، المغرب مليونا دولار، سويسرا و لبنان وهولندا وروسيا وفرنسا وجمهورية التشيك وأوكرانيا والنرويج وإيطاليا والمجر مليون دولار لكل دولة منها.

وأوضح البنك في بيان أن حجم الأموال المرسلة إلى الدول ذات الدخل المتدني والمتوسط بلغ 466 مليار دولار العام الماضي، بنسبة زيادة بلغت 8,5 في المئة عن العام 2016 والتي بلغت 429 مليار دولار.

والزيادة في عمليات تحويل الأموال كانت اقوى مما كان متوقعاً مدفوعة بالنمو في اوروبا وروسيا والولايات المتحدة، ما سمح للمهاجرين وعائلاتهم بإرسال المزيد من الأموال إلى الهند (69 مليار دولار) والصين (64 مليار دولار) والفيليبين (33 مليار دولار) والمكسيك (31 مليار دولار) ونيجيريا (22 مليار دولار) ومصر (20 مليار دولار).

وهذا الانتعاش في التحويلات بالدولار عززه ارتفاع اسعار النفط وتدهور سعر صرف اليورو.

وبحسب المناطق، شهدت اوروبا وآسيا الوسطى زيادة في التحويلات بنسبة 21 % وأفريقيا جنوب الصحراء بنسبة 11,4 %.

ومن المتوقع ارتفاع حجم التحويلات المالية إلى البلدان الفقيرة عام 2018 بنسبة 4,1 % لتصل إلى 485 مليار دولار.

في المجموع، من المتوقع أن تبلغ التحويلات إلى الدول الاجنبية وضمنها البلدان الغنية إلى 642 مليار عام 2018 ( 4,6 %) مقابل 613 مليار عام 2017 ( 7 %) حسب البنك الدولي.

وبلغت تكلفة إرسال المهاجرين 200 دولار الى بلدهم الاصلي 7,1 في المئة في المتوسط خلال الربع الأول من عام 2018، وهذا معدل يفوق كثيرا ما يعتبر الكلفة المثلى لذلك.

ولا تزال أفريقيا جنوب الصحراء المنطقة الأكثر كلفة لإرسال الأموال مع متوسط 9,4 في المئة.

وينقل التقرير عن ديليب راثا المسؤول عن الدراسة قوله: «بينما تستمر عمليات تحويل الأموال، يجب على الدول والمؤسسات ووكالات التنمية أن تواصل خفض هذه التكاليف المرتفعة للسماح للعائلات بالحصول على المزيد من الأموال».

كما يحض من جهة على إلغاء العقود الحصرية لتحسين المنافسة ومن جهة اخرى على إدخال تكنولوجيا أكثر فعالية.

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